Optimizing consensus algorithms as a handle to improve the operational efficiency and scalability of blockchain systems has become a major concern for industry and science.

Since an efficient consensus mechanism is crucial for the entire blockchain system, the original HPOS (Hybrid Proof of Sequence) from ANFS, which integrates POH (Proof of History), NPOS (Nominative Proof of Interest) and PBFT (Practical Byzantine), is from crucial. and uses VRF (Verifiable Random Function) to select reject nodes and ultimately reach consensus, was recently revealed. In HPOS, a consensus committee consisting of several nodes completes the transaction collection, the checking of the transaction timing, the block construction and the final state confirmation of the blockchain and adopts the NPOS mechanism as the incentive mechanism of the consensus committee.

“Since Bitcoin’s birth, its underlying assistive technology, blockchain, has attracted widespread attention. So far, blockchain has been widely used in many areas such as finance, Internet of Things and product traceability, but the application scenarios and application modes of blockchain as a new type of Internet infrastructure have also shown a rapid update. In the course of the further spread of the application scenarios of blockchain technology, however, the deficits of blockchain technology in terms of operational efficiency and scalability are increasingly being highlighted, ”said a developer.

“HPOS or Hybrid Proof of Sequence, which is based on sharding technology and contains the core idea of ​​the POH consensus mechanism. In contrast to the traditional POH consensus mechanism, the HPOS mechanism is based on the sharding technology, in which the network transactions are randomly assigned to multiple shards and each shard is constructed by the shard consensus node selected by the VRF function to the transaction sequence of . to generate the shard and any node within the shard can verify the shard by computing any fragment of the shard’s transaction sequence. Among them, the consensus nodes of each shard together form the network-wide consensus committee. To avoid collusion, the nodes in the consensus committee are updated every time and the NPOS mechanism is used to implement the incentive for the nodes in the consensus committee, ”he added.

In the HPOS consensus mechanism, the participating nodes are divided into general user nodes, nodes for generating shard sequences and nodes for verifying shard sequences. General user node GU (General User). In the HOPS consensus framework, GUs do not participate directly in the consensus, but are randomly assigned to different shards and can be informed about the latest status of the entire system via the P2P network. SG (Sequence Generator) is responsible for sorting the transactions in its shard, creating the transaction sequence in its shard, transmitting the transaction sequence in its shard within the shard using the Gossip protocol and communicating with SGs in other shards using the maintain the Kademlia protocol. A Sequence Verifier (SV) node is responsible for checking the transaction sequences generated by the SG and for transmitting the results within the shard. In general, the SV has the same computing power as the SG and can replace it in the event of a SG failure.

“The HPOS framework has specific hardware requirements for SG and SV, so the nodes must prove their hardware performance at the beginning of the system, and the verification mechanism is similar to that of POW, which selects the first 11th. Thereafter, by running the NPOS protocol, the top k nodes with the most votes among the 11,000 candidate nodes form the consensus committee of the entire network, and the next 10,000 nodes form the supervisory committee of the entire network. With the help of VRF, each SG node and all 10 SV nodes are randomly assigned to each shard. This approach can effectively avoid the collision caused by fixing SGs and SVs in a shard, ”says the developer.

According to the developer, each SV node in the shard verifies the generated shard transaction sequences in parallel, ie each SV node is responsible for verifying 1/10 of the shard transaction sequences. Therefore, the verification speed of the shard transaction sequence is ten times faster than its creation speed in general. When each SV in the shard completes the verification of the shard transaction sequence fragment it is responsible for, it sends the verification result with its own signature, and when all verification results of all SVs in the shard are collected, it gives the shard transaction sequence and encapsulates the sequence into the block and then announce the latest status of your shard blockchain to the entire network.

As part of the HPOS protocol, each shard maintains a unique shard transaction sequence, but no longer defines a unique transaction sequence for the entire network, ie the transaction sequence of the entire network is just a concatenation of the transaction sequences of each shard. and the transaction sequences are not sorted between the shards, the developer told the press.

about the company

The HPOS framework is a powerful blockchain consensus from ANFS.

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